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View More. National Science Board Meeting. The National Science Board, the member independent advisory body to the President and Congress on matters of national science and engineering policy, recently established a commission to set new directions for U. The board also serves as the oversight and policy-setting body of the National Science Foundation. On Aug. The meeting will continue on Friday, Aug. All sessions will be held in the National Science Board's conference room, The final chapter makes recommendations for improved management and organization and presents implications for this derived from preceding chapters.

Appended are a glossary, references, and three appendixes concerning types of federal educational evaluation activities, the parties who conduct them, and the organization of the evaluation system at state and local levels. Examining the examinations : an international comparison of science and mathematics examinations for college-bound students by Edward D Britton Book 11 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Examining the Examinations looks at the required advanced science and mathematics examinations taken by university-bound students in seven countries.

This research focuses on topics covered, types of questions used, and performance expected from students. The book concentrates on comparisons of the examinations, illustrating their similarities and differences with selected questions taken from the actual examinations. Science and mathematics in the schools : report of a convocation by Senta A Raizen Book 3 editions published in in English and Undetermined and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide In May the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering held a national convocation to consider the state of precollege education in mathematics and science in the United States.

More than 40 speakers presented their views on how to reverse the current decline in science and mathematics education. The President, members of Congress, and heads of federal agencies gave their views on the role of the federal government. Executive officers from business and labor discussed the contributions that the private sector can make.

Representatives of state and local governments and of school systems gave examples of initiatives already taken at the state and local levels. Administrators and teachers in higher and lower education discussed the critical relationships between universities, community colleges, and elementary and secondary schools. Scientists and science educators provided examples and suggestions for innovations in the content of courses and methods of teaching. Summaries of these presentations are provided in three sections focusing on: 1 the nature of the problem; 2 possible solutions; and 3 who should be responsible for making changes.

OECD, Reforming education for work : a cognitive science perspective by Senta A Raizen Book 5 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Over the past decade, research by cognitive scientists has been building a clearer understanding of how people learn in school and out. A review of the various streams of cognitive research has implications for vocational education. Research has determined characteristics of effective workers and how people become effective workers. Some highlights of this research are that 1 the usual teaching of skill hierarchies is seldom effective in educating and training for work; 2 people build workplace expertise through the opportunity to participate, under the training of experts, in physical and intellectual tasks specific to a particular work setting; 3 the abstract thinking skills required in many technical jobs today are learned effectively through a combination of practice and explicit teaching in a meaningful context; and 4 impediments to providing the opportunity to participate in meaningful work experiences include the increasing emphasis on school-based, formal education, the insistence on sequential learning of skill hierarchies and general reasoning skills without application to practice, and the increasing complexity of jobs, which makes craft-style apprenticeship ineffective.

To improve education for work, vocational education needs to integrate learning of basic skills with learning of specific work setting skills, to provide education for work in replications of work situations, and to recognize the relationship between healthy families, schools that educate, and productive workplaces. Over references are cited and a list of 20 researchers consulted is appended. Design for a national evaluation of social competence in Head Start children by Senta A Raizen Book 6 editions published in in English and held by 91 WorldCat member libraries worldwide This volume specifies the design for a national evaluation of the effects of Head Start programs on the total child, defined in terms of his social competence in assuming the role of pupil , but is not meant to be construed as a recommendation that a national evaluation be undertaken.

The first chapters contain introductory recommendations concerning the use of the evaluation design; review of many of the theoretical and methodological problems involved in determining outcome criteria and producing interpretable, socially important, and socially responsible data; discussion of background information and issues which influenced the designing of the evaluation; and an overview of the evaluation, including detailed reasons for the choices made in respect to the main elements of the evaluation design.


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The following chapters contain specific examinations of these areas: 1 Health and Nutrition; 2 Perceptual-Motor, Cognitive, and Language Development; 3 Social and Personal Development; and 4 Independent Variables concerning treatment, control groups, and background characteristics. The final sections of the volume include the basic evaluation design and discussions of issues of statistical analysis, test development, pilot tests of the national evaluation, and the importance of using focused small-scale studies as adjunct to and perhaps instead of a national evaluation.

The focus suggested is the responsiveness of career education to the problems experienced by individuals as they interact with the labor market. Using this framework, some ongoing career education projects school-based, employer-based, home-based and residential are examined to determine what changes and additional efforts are needed.


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A program plan is derived with four basic components: analytical activities, modification of continuing projects, new efforts, and evaluation. Approximate budget proportions and staffing requirements for carrying out the program are suggested, together with alternative organizational and management strategies. A item bibliography is included. Increasing educational productivity through improving the science curriculum by Senta A Raizen Book 4 editions published between and in English and held by 80 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

Results showed that the percentage of boys who took the test was higher, at a ratio across all grades. According to the authors, the ISTEP math test results, as well as the SAT math test scores for students who will likely enroll in higher education, support the argument that girls and young women possess the abilities to pursue STEM professional careers that require advanced math skills. In an initial exploratory study, Gottfried, Estrada and Sublett investigated whether there are disparities in STEM fields between students from sexual minorities and those from the sexual majority.

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Using a nationally representative sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health database, the authors considered individual factors and academic data and concluded they could not confirm the existence of any relationship between sexual minority status and taking advanced mathematics or science programs. Starting from the low participation of women in STEM areas in Western countries Van Langen, Bosker and Dekkers also pointed out the existence of differences between countries.

Sikora and Pokropek explored gender segregation in career plans in science among adolescents based on data from the PISA for 50 countries. The authors discuss whether reducing the self-concept gap in science between men and women could reduce the gender disparities in professional choices.

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Based on the combination of essentialist theory of gender and biased self-concept theory, the researchers used regression models to interpret the variation in the relationship between self-concept and career plans. Results show that in almost all countries, boys show more confidence in their scientific skills than girls. In almost all countries, girls who identify with science preferred careers in biology, agriculture or health BAH , while boys who identify with science preferred careers in computer science, engineering and mathematics SEM.

The authors underline that, in developed countries, the science self-concept gap between men and women is greater than in developing nations.

Raizen, Senta A. [WorldCat Identities]

The segregation of preference for science careers between men and women is also more pronounced in developed countries. Still, the relationship between gender differences in science self-assessment and gender segregation in the preference for BAH or SEM areas was not confirmed for any country. According to Reilly, Neumann and Andrews , the gender gap in mathematical and science literacy has important implications for understanding scientific issues; it can also help explain the underrepresentation of women in STEM fields.

The authors use data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress database in a meta-analysis to study gender differences in academic achievement in mathematics and science in the U. The authors report slight but stable differences between boys and girls during the period studied, with boys performing better in mathematics and science. The difference becomes greater between students with the highest grades.

There is greater representation of boys with higher grades, at a ratio, both in mathematics and science. The researchers found that the choice for mathematics and science courses is strongly associated with ethnicity and qualified by gender and prior science and math performance, but also by individual performance at school admission and enrolling in English as a Second Language courses. According to the authors, the students who are most likely to choose math and science courses are from Asian ethnic-linguistic groups, and they enter the provincial educational system in the upper secondary grades.

Results show that their choices for courses in both areas went through changes over the period studied, which were positive for secondary education, but more ambiguous for post-secondary education, where female underrepresentation in science and technology persisted despite the changes.

Starting from the finding that few students - particularly few girls - in the United Kingdom currently choose to take their Final School Examination in advanced mathematics, chemistry and physics in the United Kingdom, Korpershoek et al. One of the findings was that those who took the advanced mathematics, chemistry and physics exams, particularly the girls, had higher grades in mathematics than those who chose to take the exam in other disciplines. Meng, Idris and Eu studied the perceptions of over 1, secondary students in Malaysia on the assessment of STEM subjects by using a questionnaire.

Results indicated positive overall perceptions on the assessment of STEM subjects, in addition to significant differences when comparing schools, but did not indicate statistically significant differences in perceptions regarding gender.

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Andersen and Ward analyzed group differences in the expectancies and values of students with strong science and mathematics skills, as well as their plans to persist in science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM. The authors used nationally representative samples of ninth-grade students and the High School Longitudinal Study of They concluded that science attainment value, science intrinsic value, and STEM utility value were predictors of student persistence in STEM subjects, though in a different way for each ethnic-racial group.

The six articles grouped in this thematic area as with Axis 3 examine programs, partnerships, activities and courses for secondary students. The purpose was to increase their interest in STEM subjects, though for both sexes. Among the articles, two analyze STEM-specialist vocational schools. Sasson and Cohen investigated the implementation and assessment of a scientific enrichment program in Israel as an example of informal learning environment with an emphasis on physics. Approximately students completed a questionnaire after participating in science activities focusing on biology, chemistry and computer science.

Results indicated a high degree of satisfaction among the students, with no gender differences being found except in physics, to which boys showed a more positive personal attitude than girls. The girls, however, showed a decreased interest in and lower self-efficacy to that subject. Forssen et al. According to the authors, all participants, particularly the girls, experienced positive change in their perceptions of gender stereotypes in information technology after participating in the program.

In a study on vocational secondary schools, Erdogan and Stuessy emphasized that this type of school offers a unique learning environment with advanced curricula, specialist faculty and internship opportunities. The researchers concluded that students who attend STEM-specialist vocational secondary schools perform slightly better on important math and science tests compared to students attending regular secondary schools.

In addition, these students are more interested in STEM subjects, more committed in class and more likely pass state and higher education admission exams. Hamilton, Malin and Hackmann analyzed enrollment statistics for some secondary Career and Technical Education programs, comparing them with national data when possible. In STEM fields, the study found a greater enrollment of males Among non-White students, Asians have the highest representation.

Christensen, Knezek and Tyler-Wood analyzed the experience of eleventh and twelfth-grade students in a science and mathematics course conducted in a university. The students completed questionnaires before and after the course, thus, results draw from a comparison between both questionnaires.


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